A European traveler named Johann Albrecht von Mandelslow saw the flower in 1638 and depicted it in a painting of the tomb of Cyrus, but it was long forgotten or otherwise interpreted, until David. While T. Roger Smith contended that, “as our administration exhibits European justice, order, law and honour, so our buildings ought to hold up a high standard of European art”, William Emerson argued that “it is impossible for the architecture of the west to be suitable for the natives of the east”. In 679 the Bulgars crossed the Danube into Lower Moesia, and eventually expand to the west and south. By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea had begun rifting into two landmasses: Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south. The German geologist Leopold von Buch in 1839 established the three-fold division of the Jurassic, originally named from oldest to the youngest: the Black Jurassic, Brown Jurassic, and White Jurassic. The oldest part of the Jurassic Period has historically been referred to as the Lias or Liassic, roughly equivalent in extent to the Early Jurassic, but also including part of the preceding Rhaetian.
The first appearance datum of specific ammonite taxa is used to mark the beginnings of stages, as well as smaller timespans within stages, referred to as “ammonite zones”; these, in turn, are also sometimes subdivided further into subzones. W. J. Arkell in studies in 1939 and 1946 placed the lower boundary of the Oxfordian as the first appearance of the ammonite Quenstedtoceras mariae (then placed in the genus Vertumniceras). The base of the Oxfordian lacks a defined GSSP. The GSSP for the base of the Bajocian is located in the Murtinheira section at Cabo Mondego, Portugal; it was ratified in 1997. The base of the Bajocian is defined by the first appearance of the ammonite Hyperlioceras mundum. The GSSP for the base of the Hettangian is located at the Kuhjoch Pass, Karwendel Mountains, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria; it was ratified in 2010. The beginning of the Hettangian, and thus the Jurassic as a whole, is marked by the first appearance of the ammonite Psiloceras spelae tirolicum in the Kendlbach Formation exposed at Kuhjoch. A grove would naturally have disappeared in modern Persia; the structures correspond in size; the triangular roof of that which I visited might be called arched in an age when the true semi-circular arch was probably unknown; the door was so narrow, that, if I had been allowed to make the attempt, I could scarcely have forced myself through it; and those who kept the key affirmed that the only object within was an immense stone, which might be “the base of a single piece” described by Arrian; but as he was repeating the account of another, the difference is of little consequence, if it exists.
Silicified remains of Equisetum thermale from the Late Jurassic of Argentina exhibit all the morphological characters of modern members of the genus. This led to some of the first instances of significant government intervention and control over the economy, and it was during this period that much of the modern capitalist system was established. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic Era and is named after the Jura Mountains, where limestone strata from the period were first identified. The German geologist and palaeontologist Friedrich August von Quenstedt in 1858 divided the three series of von Buch in the Swabian Jura into six subdivisions defined by ammonites and other fossils. The French palaeontologist Alcide d’Orbigny in papers between 1842 and 1852 divided the Jurassic into ten stages based on ammonite and other fossil assemblages in England and France, of which seven are still used, but none has retained its original definition. The GSSP for the base of the Aalenian is located at Fuentelsaz in the Iberian range near Guadalajara, Spain, and was ratified in 2000. The base of the Aalenian is defined by the first appearance of the ammonite Leioceras opalinum.
The base of the Jurassic was previously defined as the first appearance of Psiloceras planorbis by Albert Oppel in 1856-58, but this was changed as the appearance was seen as too localised an event for an international boundary. For global stratigraphic correlation, the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) ratify global stages based on a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) from a single formation (a stratotype) identifying the lower boundary of the stage. Geologists divide the rocks of the Jurassic into a stratigraphic set of units called stages, each formed during corresponding time intervals called ages. In September 2017 the High Commission of India in the UK, with the support of the UK India Business Council, announced the Access India programme, a unique scheme set up to help many more UK SMEs export to India. A few operated during the Vietnam War on missions such as relaying ELINT data, Bryn Mawr Carpet Restoration but were replaced by more efficient and capable Boeing RC-135s.